It is within this context that we have suggested over the years that federalism is the next logical step to devolution and local autonomy. This was the rejoinder of a 2016 UP School of Economics forum to the claim that federalism was the only solution to the country’s problems. “All of this will have to come into play in the next few months leading up to the filing of CoCs (certificate of candidacy) by October,” Generoso said. The ConCom tasked to review the 1987 Constitution is confident that public perception on amending the charter will change once the proposed federal charter is presented to them. If viewed from a positive point of view, this is a healthy sign for a country that continues to seek appropriate politico-administrative structures and institutions suitable to us at this particular historical moment. The Key Arguments for Federalism in the Philippines. We know the loads of Congress.”, He also cited the need for Congress to deliberate on the national budget as well as other pending priority bills, not to mention the upcoming 2019 elections. GMA promotes healthy debate … Hundreds of supporters show their solidarity in pushing for federalism government during rally held at Quezon City Memorial Circle. Despite years of recurring internal debate on constitutional reform in the Philippines, the implications of certain institutional choices (e.g., federalism, a presidential vs. parliamentary system) remain ill-understood and have hardly been discussed. THE Barangay Ginebra Gin Kings captured the coveted All-Filipino championship for the first time in 13 years on Wednesday... BEIJING, Dec. 8: China will ensure the continuity, stability, and sustainability of its macro policies and try to keep the economy running within a... BEIJING/KATHMANDU, Dec. 8: The new height of Mount Qomolangma, the world’s highest peak, is 8,848.86 meters, according to a joint announcement by China and... China tops the list of countries with the most artificial intelligence unicorn companies in the world, the 21st Century Business Herald reported on Tuesday. A recent survey by Pulse Asia found that 67% of Filipinos oppose the change, while only 18 percent were in favour and the other 14 percent were undecided.. He said the federal system “is definitely not suited for the country and our people of this generation and even of the succeeding generations.”, He also said the issue of federalism was a major prejudicial issue raised during the 1935 Constitutional Convention, the 1971 Constitutional Convention, and the 1986 Constitutional Commission. This paper discusses salient points which the Philippines must consider in reforming the health system, particularly in view of the Federalism debate. Understanding Federalism RAPHAEL N. M ÓNTES, JR. Public sector reforms – which are among the imperatives in nation building – may address specific concerns confronted by a nation during a particular historical moment, or a particular historical period. The federalism proposal seeks to reintegrate all divided provinces, towns, and cities into a regional political unit, so that the national government only has to deal with 18 federated regions. He said other countries like Germany, Austria, and even in Asia have put up constitutional courts. You have successfully joined our subscriber list. Pros and cons Then, as proposed by the consultative commission, representation in the Senate can be redesigned to allocate two senators per region to enable and assure equitable representation of all regions in the senate, something that has been sorely missing the past many decades. These include designing and developing responsive fiscal federalism reforms, including a state-oriented revenue-raising scheme, to a transfer scheme based on performance and needs within the framework of asymmetric federalism. Since ConCom has ceased operation from Aug. 18, DILG, or Department of the Interior and Local Government, is now tasked to conduct regional consultations on federalism. One of her campaign promises was to reform the 1987 Constitution. Discussions on federalism have not been fully reported in mainstream media. “Indeed, it took eons before the unitary government delegated health, social welfare, and agriculture powers to our local governments and, worse, the delegation was not accompanied by appropriate financial support,” Puno said. Devolution and federalism are modes of decentralization. It is also an instrument for development to address the inequities among the regions, and a way to address the conflicts in Mindanao. The draft charter contains 22 articles, namely, National Territory (Article 1); Declaration of Principles and State Policies (Article 2); Bill of Rights (Article 3); Citizenship (Article 4); Suffrage and Political Parties (Article 5); People’s Initiative, Plebiscite, and Referendum (Article 6); Legislative Department (Article 7); Executive Department (Article 8); Judicial Department (Article 9); Constitutional Commission (Article 10); Federated Regions, the Bangsamoro, and the Federated Region of the Cordilleras (Article 11); Distribution of Powers of the Government (Article 12), Fiscal Powers and Financial Administration (Article 13); Accountability of Public Officers (Article 14); National Economy and Patrimony (Article 15); Social Justice (Article 16); Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture, and Sports (Article 17); The Family (Article 18); National Security and Public Order (Article 19); General Provisions (Article 20); Amendments or Revision (Article 21); and Transitory Provisions (Article 22). One thing is clear: considering the enormous problems and challenges we encounter as a nation – ranging from poverty and inequity to social injustice and corruption – we all agree that the status quo is not acceptable and that fundamental reforms are imperative. Under the new proposed constitution, the Philippines will be divided into 18 federated regions. The proposals to adopt a federal form of government should be framed within this context. By continuing to use this website without disabling cookies in your web browser, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. "This book will surely enrich the public debate on federalism. This way, the delivery of social services will become more efficient and equitable. This approach may be in line with what Aristotle once called “phronesis,” or practical wisdom. Those who will be detailed to the administrative tribunal must be specialists in administrative cases. He earlier served as the Dean of the College of the National College of Public Administration and Governance; Executive Director of the Local Government Academy; and Commissioner of the Commission on Higher Education. The transition to federalism may be an excellent opportunity for us to introduce much needed reforms in local governance that have been proposed through the past two decades. For instance, a landlocked municipality in the mountainous Cordillera regions has different needs from an island fishing municipality in the Visayas. It is a must for is to check it out first before actually getting it in to the public. It is within this context that popular public sector reform interventions – including the massive reorganization of government, the decentralization of powers to sub-national governments and the shift to a federal structure of government – may be appreciated and understood. Generoso said ConCom knew from the beginning that its mandate was just up to the crafting of a draft constitution. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. In February 2018, the League of Provinces of the Philippines (LPP), whose members are the 81 provincial governors, gave its support to the country's shift to federalism, but stated that the 81 existing provinces should be converted into "independent states", instead of regional lumping. “We have other stubborn problems which our unitary government has failed to solve: the poverty of our people rampaging throughout the length and breadth of our regions; the stranglehold of political dynasties in all levels of government, especially in local governments and the barangays; the dominance of monopolies and oligopolies and their capture of our regulatory agencies; the continuing corruption in government; the rule of lawlessness, especially perpetrated by the drug lords,” he said. These discontinuities in implementation of reforms simply reflect our political immaturity that unfortunately continues to characterize Philippine politics today. Federalism is a concept considered in political science as a classical form of government, especially when viewed next to the unitary form. Among the reforms that generated much discussion is the proposal to amend the constitution and adopt a federal form of government as an alternative to the unitary system that we have today. Y1 - 2015. As chairperson of the Department of Political Science at the College of Social Sciences and Philosophy (CSSP) of the University of the Philippines Diliman, Atienza teaches subjects on governance, politics, local government, gender issues, and human security. Puno is certain that the support of the President and economic managers for federalism is “very clear.” He made the remark amid statements by Finance Secretary Carlos Dominguez 3rd and Socioeconomic Planning Secretary Ernesto Pernia that federalism would wreak havoc to the economy. PHOTO BY ROGER RAÑADA. These ranged from the well thought out and serious proposals of the Consultative Committee led by Chief Justice Puno and the venerable Aquilino 'Nene' Pimentel Jr, to the bald partisan proposals emanating from some members of Congress to the vulgar “pepe-dederalismo” messaging. Framework for Debate on Federalism Reaction Paper by Florangel Rosario-Braid, Ph.D. Hence the discourse on federalism is not new when located within the context of the decentralization continuum. Friday, 20 November 2020 MGB 7 relocates Naga city residents living near cracks. AU - Brumby, John. Qomolangma, China has world’s most AI unicorn companies, New high-speed train rolls off production line in Hebei, China, China’s new five-year plan offers opportunities for world: economist, A decade of making lives better,one home at a time. If anything at all, we have learned that the use of the “formula” in allocating the IRA to the LGUs was simplistic: the use of population, land area and equal sharing failed to take into account more important factors such as poverty and performance. The federalism debate should be placed in its proper perspective. The history of federalism stems from the formation of confederations that sought to give more powers to their central governments. T1 - The Federalism Debate. ... Evolution of the Debate 1986-2014 Public Opinion on the issue: labile Dutertismo, Populism, Federalism Federalism Is Good. Yet there continue to be resistance from many knowledgeable – and certainly informed - sectors who believe the shift to federalism may not be necessary nor prudent at this point in time considering the very political and even partisan nature the debates have taken. “Our consultative journey has spanned centuries of time—from the colonization of Spain, the United States, and the Japanese,” Puno said. No one size fits all. Also in photo is former Senate President Aquilino “Nene” Pimentel Jr. (4th from right). “But in the draft Constitution that we crafted, we came up with four high courts. Federalism Debate – The Manila Times Ball in the hands of Congress REINTEGRATION and empowerment of local government units are the “buzzwords” of the proponents of federalism in convincing Congress to pass a measure amending the 1987 Constitution to shift to a … In Congress’s court CONTRIBUTED PHOTO, In a speech at a formal opening of committee proceedings in March, Puno also said, “It appears that given his far-seeing foresight, Rizal stepped into the future much ahead of his time and clime. © 2020 ABS-CBN Corporation. “In these three great bodies, federalism miserably lost.”, He added, “Federalism cannot fit into our history as a people, our culture, our character, our traditions, our training and experiences in the art of politics and government and even into our idiosyncrasies and peculiarities.”, Stressing the fact that federalism has been untested and untried in the Philippines since the proclamation of independence on June 12, 1898, Davide said, “[F]ederalism would be a foreign invader, a total and complete stranger which cannot be expected to bring to our country and our people gold, frankincense, and myrrh.”. The 22-member ConCom was headed by retired Justice Reynato Puno with the following as members: former Senator Aquilino Pimentel, Jr., retired Justices Antonio Eduardo Nachura and Bienvenido Reyes, Dean Julio Teehankee, Arthur Aguilar, Prof. Eddie Alih, Fr. They might have a specific plan.”, Get the latest news from your inbox for free. Although a strong push for the adoption of a federal form of government has been given by the incumbent administration, the federalism agenda should not be equated to a Duterte-led movement and should in one sense, therefore be insulated from partisan politics. One of the primary arguments for promoting a federal form of government in the country centers on the need to decentralize the power of the central government. This is precisely what devolution and local autonomy is all about. Former ConCom spokesman Ding Generoso said the ball is now in Congress’s court. Its coming, I respectfully submit, is not a fortuitous event nor a stroke of fortune but is part of the perfect plan of the Divine for our country.”. If there were, the public’s knowledge about it has been limited to pushing for its establishment as a new system of government vis-à-vis constitutional change. We end these notes with the following thoughts. Our government is Metro Manila-centric. Federalism is one of the pillars of the campaign promise of President Rodrigo Duterte, to empower the regions outside Metro Manila as well as avoid the further fragmentation of provinces and towns to suit the interests of some groups or political clans. Research paper graphic organizer elementary how to write a critical essay on a film in topics the research philippines Federalism paper. The antidote is federalism because the essence of federalism is nonconcentration of powers.”. That is what decentralization is all about, and this is what federalism may be all about. This may sound naïve but that is what fundamental politico-administrative reforms should be. AU - Galligan, Brian. TY - JOUR. Parenthetically, at the practical level, we can begin by beginning with low-hanging fruit that would lay the groundwork for federalism. We might also learn from the great amalgamation of local governments experience of Japan – seen as one of the factors behind the country’s progress. As regards finances, we can build upon the experience we have had with the internal revenue allotment (IRA) distribution to local governments as provided for by the local government code of 1992. Under the draft federal charter, specific deadlines were set for the resolution of cases. It is time for our regions to be liberated, time to be freed from the shackles of the national government. I believe that federalism has been and still is essential to the division of power between federal and state governments. Hence the shift will provide the enabling framework for the implementation of reforms in sub-national governance, including imperatives to amalgamate local governments, not only at the barangay level but also at the municipal and provincial levels. Davao, for instance, used to be one province during the Commonwealth Era but is now divided into five provinces. Delegation of power, which is the mantra of the unitary system, is worlds apart from the distribution-of-powers cornerstone of the federal system. Again equitable representation is a major feature of federalism. Building upon this important lesson learned, the allocation of financial resources to the sub-national institutions – states and component local governments under a federal set-up – must take into consideration what Australians have referred to as the “disabilities” of these sub-national governments in terms of poverty incidence and resource deprivation. “Why not just amend the local government code?” these sectors rightfully point out, considering that strengthening sub-national institutions and deepening people participation is at the core of the desired reforms. Remember that the current unitary system subordinates local governments under the authority of the national government. The fact remains that the autonomous regions are still under of one umbrella – the Philippines. This is grounded on reality where we have seen actual local governments use their creative powers and authorities vested in them by the local government code through devolution respond to the unique needs of their constituencies (health, education, conflict resolution, generation of financial resource), and come up with innovative responses to local challenges and concerns. Three main documents provide basis for working draft - Senate Resolution 10 by former Senate President Aquilino Pmentel Jr.; HR Resolution 8 … All things, everything, orbits in Manila and the result is a catastrophe.”, Metro Manila, Puno said, “wallows in prosperity while the other regions sink in poverty. “The area of concern of the economic managers is the fiscal provision,” Puno said in a September 7 television interview. And closer to home, in Indonesia, though not federal but highly decentralized, they have what they call Bhinekka Tungal Ika (Unity in Diversity.). It will be recalled that meaningful devolution process was started in 1991, and after 28 years it could be said that the country has not yet attained full devolution. But none of them was successfully done for one reason or another.”. Our many local governments who have been recognized by the Galing Pook and other programs through the years are actual evidence of this: these include Upi in Maguindanao, Malaybalay in Bukidnon, Cebu City, Naga City, Mandaluyong City, Munoz in Nueva Ecija, La Trinidad in Benguet, and Aparri in Cagayan, among many, many others. Federalism would be the next step in the continuum, before separatism and independence. Philippine politico-administrative history has shown that the decentralization of powers to sub-national governments has been a continuing demand of local governments as part of the clamor for autonomy. Federalism should be placed within a broader politico-administrative perspective with a keen appreciation of its historical context. It is thus considered as a part of the public sector reform for nation building. It is realistic because the process is built upon existing policies that have been tried and tested already such as in the case of Galing Pook awardees. Read more: Why federalism will be good for the Philippines. Decentralization can be placed in a continuum with deconcentration (administrative decentralization) in one end where minimal powers are transferred to lower levels, and independence and separatism at the other extreme. Finding Federalism in the Philippines Steven Rood Philippine Country Representative, The Asia Foundation Philippine Update Conference 2-3 September, 2016 Australian National University. Federalism—the devolution of responsibilities and powers of the national government of the dictatorial presidential system : a strong president vested with enormous powers short of a dictator king. As former Senate President Koko Pimentel asserted, “federalism is not for President Duterte” and pointing out that “our party [administration party PDP-Laban] has been advocating federalism since 1982.” And at University of the Philippines National College of Public Administration and Governance, we have been debating the merits of federalism in late seventies with Gabriel Iglesias, former Dean of the College, leading the discussions. For the sake of those doomsayers to be enlightened, federalism would not dis-integrate the country. Federalism must build upon the hard earned gains. More specifically, it should be appreciated within the context of our continuing search for responsive politico-administrative structures and institutions considering the widespread poverty and inequity plaguing our society. 5 In the same primer, it was said that ” the type of federalism suited for the Philippines can be determined only through discussion, consultation and debate among our people” . Responding to the question, social science professors produced the “Debate on Federal Philippines: A Citizen’s Handbook” to identify the issues to consider before committing to a radical change in political structure. Pero ano nga ba ang pederalismo? Attempts at federalism in PH There was an attempt during the administration of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. It is important to unpack the debate and begin with what we are familiar with and then proceed with the nuts and bolts of the project. “Our history chronicles the fact that no less than our national hero, Jose P. Rizal, who first floated the federalist idea as best suited for the Philippines as a polycultural country.”, Senate President Vicente Sotto 3rd (5th from right) receives a draft of the proposed Federal Constitution from former Supreme Court Chief Justice and Consultative Committee (ConCom) Chairman Reynato Puno (6th from right) on July 12. Laging mainit na usapin ang pagpapalit ng Philippine system of government into federalism. View Federalism in the Philippines Research Papers on for free. And this can only be done if we adopt federalism.”. Is the Philippine ready for a federal form of government? To a certain extent, the discourse on federalism has become a political question. “As I said earlier, the first resolution that I filed in the 1986 Constitutional Commission urged the commission to first decide on the issue of system, type and form of government,” Davide explained. For the trial court, three months from submission of the cases.”, Pimentel has said the adoption of federal system of government for the entire republic, whereby the Muslim people will be assured of a Bangsamoro federal state, “may be the only legal and constitutional way to bring a just and lasting peace in central and southern Mindanao.”, “The federalization of the republic will also equalize development opportunities for all the regions of the country,” he said in a 2001 speech. Stressing the Philippines’ unitary government has failed to solve the country’s primary problems, Puno said, “The most serious of these problems is the threat of secession of some of our brothers in Mindanao because the government cannot grant their valid identity-based demands.”, Former Senate President Aquilino Pimentel 3rd, a member of ConCom and an advocate for federalism since 2001, said that since the Spanish colonial era (1521 – 1898) up to the American occupation of the country (1898 – 1946) “and all the way to the years of our independence as a republic (1946 – 1990), our system of governance had always been highly centralized.”. Puno highlighted the advantages of shifting to federalism from unitary government when he voted to adopt the draft federal charter crafted by ConCom. But Professor Maria Ela Atienza still feels that there is a lack of understanding of what federalism is and how it can affect people. 10. The United States, a highly diverse country of immigrants, has a motto: E Pluribus Unum (out of many – one). It will allow us to rise above our rabid partisanship and instead focus on our collective goal of nation building which is what the debate on federalism should be. In crafting the federal charter, the committee studied the constitutions of the following countries: Afghanistan, Argentina, Brazil, California, Canada, Cuba, Ethiopia, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kenya, Libya (2011 and 1957), Malaysia, Myanmar, Russia, Thailand, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zimbabwe, and the US, including its states of New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. “It is not doable in the 1987 Constitution,” Puno stressed. ARGUMENT 1: Doomsayers believes that federalism would just dis-intergrate or make dis-unification within the country. And equally important and quite significantly, it could be an also be a chance to address contemporary burning concerns at the level of local governance – such as fragmentation and even gerrymandering of local governments, which unfortunately has reared its ugly head once more. Copyright © The Manila Times – All Rights Reserved. As saying goes, different strokes for different folks. In the early years of Spanish colonization or in later part of 1600, the governors-general who reported to the king or queen of Spain only had about 20 provinces and a couple of towns and cities to deal with. For the lower justices, one year. App for photo essay. “And so, all said and done, our regions need to be given their own exclusive powers, given rationally by the Constitution itself and not given by the national government through laws that it can change capriciously and whimsically. Consequently, Rizal’s federal dream went no further than a fetus even if it was endorsed by other visionary leaders like [Emilio] Aguinaldo.”, Puno told fellow committee members he would like to believe that “after more than a century of incubation, the time of the federal idea has now come to the Philippines. It is also claimed that a shift to the system could accelerate the development of impoverished regions in the country and end ethnic conflicts brought about by the Filipinos’ cultural differences. Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte marked the beginning of his third year in office by signing the Bangsamoro Organic Law (BOL), an autonomy-devolving Federalism debate heats up in the Philippines - … In his third SONA, or State of the Nation Address, on July 23, the President said, “Four administrations before me have all tried to amend the Constitution to be able to introduce amendments and revisions to the charter. For instance, in designing the proposed federal states, we can take off from the administrative regions and the regional development councils. It is an instrument to recognize diversity and preserve the ethnic identities and culture of the indigenous peoples of the country. It is within this context that we suggest this proposal, frame the federalism discourse within the context of devolution and strengthen subnational governments. It is the over-concentration of power in the national government. View full-text Article To reduce the federalism debate into a “are you for or against federalism” reflects a simplistic appreciation of the issue. Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government that combines a general government (the central or "federal" government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system. ConCom hopes these will solve the backlog of cases. “Unless we federalize the republic, Muslim secessionist tendencies will recur as they have been recurring for as long as I can remember. It's not perfect, and no form of government is; but I believe it is a good division of power that is outlined in the Constitution and it keeps the peace in this great country. Which form of government fits the Philippines best: presidential, parliamentary, or hybrid? “The next phase is selling it to Congress and having it submitted to the people through a plebiscite,” Generoso said. federalism, Rodrigo Duterte, charter change, devolution, decentralization, Local Government Code, political reform, Alex Brillantes Jr. Nation-building is a continuing process that takes time and is context-specific. “Let’s see how Congress finally acts on the proposal. AboutCareersPrivacyTermsContact UsAdvertise With Us, Federalism, decentralization and devolution: A continuing debate in the Philippines. What are characteristics of a definition essay topics philippines in Federalism paper research the, college board ap lang essays 2018. “I am confident that the Filipino people will stand behind us as we introduce this new fundamental law that will not only strengthen our democratic institutions, but will also create an environment where every Filipino—regardless of social status, religion, or ideology—will have an equal opportunity to grow and create a future that he or she can proudly bequeath to the succeeding generations.”. Is federalism in the Philippines a “new” idea? Alex Brillantes Jr. (PhD University of Hawaii) is Professor at the University of the Philippines National College of Public Administration and Governance. Delegated powers can always be taken back by the unitary government. 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